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Geology Facts

Surprise! Lightning Has Big Effect On Atmospheric Chemistry

Scientists were surprised to learn summer lightning over the U.S. significantly increases regional ozone and other gases that affect air chemistry 3 to 8 miles above Earth's surface.The amounts of ... Continue reading

A Voggy Day On The Big Island

On the morning of February 8, 2000, Harry Kim, Director of Hawai`i County Civil Defense, asked radio stations on the Island of Hawai`i to broadcast a special message concerning the thick, acrid haze ... Continue reading

Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai`i emits about 2,000 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas each day during periods of sustained eruption. Air pollution caused by sulfur dioxide and other volcanic gases became a frequent problem on the island in mid-1986, when the volcano's ongoing eruption, which began in 1983, changed from episodes of spectacular lava fountaining (shown here) to a nearly constant but quiet outflow of lava and gas.

The Importance of Cave and Karst Systems

Cave and karst systems are important for two major reasons. First, the overwhelming majority of the nation's freshwater resources is groundwater. About 25% of the groundwater is located in cave and ... Continue reading

A Great Sunset Takes A Few Clouds

Although the twilight sky can certainly inspire awe even when it is devoid of clouds, the most memorable sunsets tend to be those with at least a few clouds. Clouds catch the last red-orange rays of ... Continue reading

More Geology Facts


Earth Measurement:

  1. The Richter Magnitude Scale
  2. What is Geodesy?

Earthquakes:

  1. Earthquake Weather?
  2. Silent Earthquakes
  3. The San Andreas Fault
  4. Was That The Big One? Depends On How You Measured It.
  5. When This Lake 'Burps,' Better Watch Out!

Energy:

  1. Fossil Energy - The Basics
  2. Natural Gas - The Blue Flame
  3. There's Oil Down There

Environment:

  1. The Hole Scoop on Ozone
  2. What is Haze?

Features:

  1. A Continent In Deep Freeze
  2. A National Park of Caves
  3. A River of Sand
  4. Bryce Canyon
  5. Crater Lake
  6. Devils Postpile National Monument
  7. Geology Played Key Role in the End of the Civil War
  8. Heading For The Badlands
  9. Salty Remnants At Death Valley's Badwater
  10. The Importance of Cave and Karst Systems
  11. What's So Bad About The Badlands?
  12. White Sands National Monument

Geodynamics:

  1. Flipping Magnetic Fields
  2. Is Earth Getting Fatter Around the Belt?
  3. Landslides and Mudflows
  4. Pointing North
  5. Under The Crust
  6. Water In The Ground
  7. What are Hoodoos?

Glaciers:

  1. Arctic Carbon a Potential Wild Card in Climate Change Scenarios
  2. Glaciers: Rivers of Ice
  3. Retreating Glaciers Spur Alaskan Earthquakes
  4. The World's Biggest Popsicle

Global Climate Change:

  1. Antarctica and Climate Change
  2. CALIPSO in 2004
  3. Distant Mountains Influence River Levels 50 Years Later
  4. Finding Ice In The Rocks--Evidence Of Earth's Ice Ages
  5. Getting Burned By Acid Rain
  6. Global Warming?
  7. How Do We Predict The Climate--100,000 Years Ago?
  8. NASA Explains Dust Bowl Drought
  9. Surprise! Lightning Has Big Effect On Atmospheric Chemistry
  10. The Good, the Bad and the Ozone
  11. What Are The Differences Between Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Greenhouse Warming, And Climate Change?
  12. What Causes Ice Ages....Or Global Warming?
  13. Will Runaway Water Warm the World?

Minerals and Gems:

  1. All That Glitters
  2. Diamonds Improved by Irradiation?
  3. Our Most Abundant Fossil Fuel
  4. Robin's Egg Blue
  5. Rock, Mineral, Crystal, or Gemstone?
  6. The Mineral Chalcedony
  7. You, Graphite and Diamonds

Oceans:

  1. A Big, Big Wave
  2. A Undersea View of Our Earth's Geography
  3. Is the Dead Sea really dead?
  4. Is The Sea Really On The Level?
  5. Seamounts - Underwater Mountains
  6. What is an Estuary?

Plate Tectonics:

  1. Pangea
  2. Plate Tectonics

Rocks:

  1. Igneous Rocks, Born of Fire
  2. Metamorphic Rock
  3. Sedimentary Rock
  4. Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
  5. Zeolites: The Secret Ingredient

Thermal:

  1. Old Faithful - Thar She Blows!

Volcanos:

  1. 1816 - The Year Without A Summer
  2. A Voggy Day On The Big Island
  3. Haleakala Crater
  4. Pyroclastic Flows: Deadly Rivers of Rock
  5. Submarine Volcanoes
  6. Types of Volcanoes
  7. What is Volcanic Ash?

Weather:

  1. A Great Sunset Takes A Few Clouds
  2. A Hurricane In Brazil?
  3. How Much Water in an Inch of Snow?
  4. Hurricanes, The Basics
  5. Lightning Striking Again
  6. Man Made Clouds
  7. Predicting Floods
  8. The Hydrology of Drought
  9. The Importance Of Clouds And Aerosols To Climate Change
  10. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
  11. Tornadoes
  12. Wetter not Necessarily Better in Amazon Basin
  13. What Are The Dangers Of Lightning?
  14. What Are The Key Ingredients For An Avalanche?
  15. What Causes The Blue Color That Sometimes Appears In Snow And Ice?
  16. What Is Air Pressure?
  17. What Is The Most Damaging Hazard From A Hurricane?
  18. What's In A Name?
  19. Who Named The Cloud Types?
  20. Why Don't We Try To Destroy Tropical Cyclones?