ScienceIQ.com

The Weakest Force

Did you know that gravity is the weakest force in the universe? Well, it's true! There are four fundamental forces (that we know of) in our universe: Strong Nuclear, Electromagnetic, Weak Nuclear and Gravitational. The strongest one is the Strong Nuclear force, which is responsible for keeping the nuclei of atoms together. About one hundred ...

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WeakForce
Physics

Can Wint-O-Green Lifesavers® Light up Your Life?

Next time you're bored, grab a pack of Wint-O-Green Lifesavers® and lock yourself in the bathroom. Shut the blinds and make sure the room is pitch black. Allow your eyes to adjust and open the pack ... Continue reading

WintOGreenLifesavers
Biology

What Elements Are Required By Animals And Plants For Survival?

An understanding of our fragile environment can begin with a recognition of the importance of certain elements, commonly called 'mineral substances' (such as iron and zinc), in the lives of humans and ... Continue reading

AnimalsPlantsSurvival
Biology

Batesian Mimicry

If you ever got stung by a wasp you would probably avoid all flying insects which resemble the brightly-colored yellow and black wasp. If you were a bird and certain types of butterflies gave you a ... Continue reading

BatesianMimicry
Biology

Embryo Transfer and Cloning

Scientists use embryo transfer technology to obtain more offspring from a genetically superior animal. For instance, if a farmer owns a cow that produces excellent milk and wants more cows to produce ... Continue reading

EmbryoTransferandCloning

What Is a Spinal Cord Injury?

WhatIsaSpinalCordInjuryAlthough the hard bones of the spinal column protect the soft tissues of the spinal cord, vertebrae can still be broken or dislocated in a variety of ways and cause traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord. The segment of the cord that is injured, and the severity of the injury, will determine which body functions are compromised or lost. Because the spinal cord acts as the main information pathway between the brain and the rest of the body, a spinal cord injury can have significant physiological consequences. Catastrophic falls, being thrown from a horse or through a windshield, or any kind of physical trauma that crushes and compresses the vertebrae in the neck can cause irreversible damage at the cervical level of the spinal cord and below.

Paralysis of most of the body including the arms and legs, called quadriplegia, is the likely result. Automobile accidents are often responsible for spinal cord damage in the middle back (the thoracic or lumbar area), which can cause paralysis of the lower trunk and lower extremities, called paraplegia. Other kinds of injuries that directly penetrate the spinal cord, such as gunshot or knife wounds, can either completely or partially sever the spinal cord and create life-long disabilities. Most injuries to the spinal cord don't completely sever it. Instead, an injury is more likely to cause fractures and compression of the vertebrae, which then crush and destroy the axons, extensions of nerve cells that carry signals up and down the spinal cord between the brain and the rest of the body. An injury to the spinal cord can damage a few, many, or almost all of these axons. Some injuries will allow almost complete recovery. Others will result in complete paralysis.

Until World War II, a serious spinal cord injury usually meant certain death, or at best a lifetime confined to a wheelchair and an ongoing struggle to survive secondary complications such as breathing problems or blood clots. But today, improved emergency care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the nervous system and even restore limited abilities. Advances in research are giving doctors and patients hope that all spinal cord injuries will eventually be repairable. With new surgical techniques and exciting developments in spinal nerve regeneration, the future for spinal cord injury survivors looks brighter every day.